In this entry I will explain how to install and setup a SFTP service in a Ubuntu or Debian Linux server. SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol) is an extension of the SSH (Secure SHell protocol) which is commonly used for secure remote access into systems.
Despite its name SFTP is not an extension to the 1985 FTP (File Transfer Protocol – RFC 959) which was in common use until the late 1990s to share files online. FTP usage has fallen out of favor for Internet use in the 2000’s due to the protocol’s inherent insecurities in addition to competition from newer protocol such as the bandwidth friendly BitTorrent protocol. The most glaring insecurity with FTP is that it requires log-in user names and passwords to be communicated between the client and the server using unencrypted plain-text.
Fortunately in recent years many of the more popular FTP clients have implemented complete support for SFTP making the end-user transition from insecure to secure transfers seamless. Older, now redundant stop gaps for secure FTP such as FTPS/FTP-SSL which is now referred to as FTP with TLS (RFC 4217) were confusing to use and difficult to setup correctly.
It is now gotten to the point where people probably would not know the difference between browsing a secure SFTP site to browsing an open, insecure FTP site. Personally my favourite FTP/SFTP client is the multi-platform, open sourced FileZilla but there are many others such as SmartFTP, WinSCP or FireFTP (for Firefox).
Okay to the task at hand we will do everything in CLI (command line interface) aka shell mode.
First make sure your repository is up to date.
sudo apt-get update
Now install OpenSSH server software.
sudo apt-get install openssh-server
We then create a user group for SFTP access, I will be calling it sftponly. For security I think it is best practice not to allow accounts with SFTP access additional admission to the server using secure shell (SSH) remote log in.
sudo groupadd sftponly
Run the following to display your new group. It will be listed as the last entry.
Cat allows you to quickly display a text file while /etc/group is the file that defines the groups on the server. You should see something like this.
Each line is an individual group, you can see the name, the password which is set to x which means none, the numeric group id and users who are associated with the group. For sftponly there are currently no assigned users.
Take note of the group id, in this screenshot it is the value 1001.
We now add a new user that we will use exclusively for SFTP access.
sudo useradd [user name] -d / -g [sftponly group id] -M -N -o -u [sftponly group id] sudo passwd [user name]
The arguments we used.
- -d is the user home directory which needs to be set to / (root).
- -g is the user group id to assign which in our example needs to be assigned to sftponly.
- -M stops the useradd command creating a home directory.
- -N useradd by default creates a group with the same name as the new user, this disables that behaviour.
- -u is the user id, which in our case needs to be the same id value as sftponly.
- -o allows duplicate, non-unique user ids.
- The passwd command sets an encrypted user password.
Add a user of your choice, I will use ben_example. To display your users.
We now backup and edit the SSH Daemon configuration file.
sudo cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc/ssh/sshd_config.bak sudo nano +76 /etc/ssh/sshd_config
Subsystem sftp /usr/lib/openssh/sftp-server
Needs to be replaced with
Subsystem sftp internal-sftp
Now go to the end of the document, the key combination Alt / should take you there or you could simply use the Page Down key. After UsePAM Yes add the following lines to configure our sftponly group permissions and settings. The ChrootDirectory setting will confine all sftponly users to this directory. Otherwise sftponly will have access to your server root which you do not want. /var/www is often the default Debian/Ubuntu location for web servers to place their assets such as HTML, CSS files and images. Though you can use a different directory for ChrootDirectory such as /var/sftp.
Match group sftponly ChrootDirectory /var/www X11Forwarding no AllowTcpForwarding no ForceCommand internal-sftp
Once finished use the key combination Ctrl O to save and then Ctrl X exit.
Now make sure the directory you assigned to ChrootDirectory actually exists and if it does not then create it. Also the directory group and owner need to be root which it should by default if you use the command.
sudo mkdir /var/wwwA reminder, the directory and its parent directories you assign to ChrootDirectory MUST be owned by root and assigned the group root. Otherwise SFTP clients will not be able to upload or modify files and directories.
Now for later testing create the first of 3 directories within your ChrootDirectory.
cd /var/www sudo mkdir test_readonly sudo chmod 755 test_readonly
If you do not understand the chmod command shown we will quickly go through it but it is beyond the scope of this article. Change mode (chmod) parameter 755 is a permission code in octal notation. You break it up into 3 parts, 7/5/5.
- 1st part is root permission for this directory.
- 2nd is group permission.
- 3rd is everyone else.
The value of the individual part grants permissions for its user. A value of 0 grants no permission, a value of 1 grants execute permissions, 2 grants write and 4 grants read. These values can be summed to create multiple permissions. So 1 (execute) + 2 (write) + 4 (read) equals 7 which grants execute, write and read aka total access. chmod 755 test_readonly means the root has total access. While users associated with the directory’s group and everyone else only have execute and read access, 4 (read) + 1 (execute) = 5. More can be read about Linux permissions here http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File_system_permissions#Symbolic_notation.
sudo mkdir test_readwrite sudo chown root:sftponly test_readwrite sudo chmod 775 test_readwrite
The above commands creates a test_readwrite directory whose owner is root and group is sftponly. Both root and sftponly members have full access permissions within test_readwrite, which allows the creation and deletion of files and sub-directories.
To remove browsing access to a directory you remove the read permission as shown below. 1 (execute) + 2 (write) = 3, execute and write access but critically no read which leaves the other two permissions redundant.
sudo mkdir test_noaccess sudo chmod 733 test_noaccess
Restart the SSH server.
sudo /etc/init.d/ssh restart
If you don’t know your server IP address.
ip -o -f inet addr
lo is your local host, eth0 is your Ethernet cable connected address, wlan0 is probably wireless.
Connect to your SSH server using an SFTP client such as FileZilla. Make sure you use the correct IP address and port number which by default is 22.
You should be connected to the directory assigned to ChRootDirectory (var/www) in your SSHD configuration and that doubles as the SFTP client root folder. Also listed should be the test_readonly, test_readwrite and test_noaccess directories that we created earlier. Play or navigate around, hopefully you can upload files and create/delete directories within test_readwrite. While test_noaccess should be displayed but limited to browsing or download access.
In the screen capture below we have Filezilla’s message log with 3 sections highlighted. The orange section shows my failed attempt at accessing test_noaccess. The purple is the successful attempt at accessing test_readonly, but a failure in creating a New directory sub-folder within. While the green section shows access into test_readwrite as well as being able to create a New directory sub-folder and its subsequent removal.
Congratulations you now have a working example of a SFTP service running on your server. It should be mentioned that a number of these instructions were originally learnt from the blog post SFTP on Ubuntu and Debian in 9 easy steps and the reader comments.